Diabetes mellitus, also referred to as diabetes, is a collection of metabolic illnesses characterized by persistently elevated blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia). Frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased appetite are common symptoms. Diabetes can lead to a wide range of health issues if neglected. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, and even mortality are examples of acute complications.
Diabetes is a long-term (chronic) illness that affects how your body converts food into energy.
The majority of the food you consume is converted by your body into sugar (glucose), which is then released into your bloodstream. Your pancreas releases insulin when your blood sugar levels rise. In order for blood sugar to enter your body’s cells and be used as energy, insulin functions like a key.
When you have diabetes, your body either produces insufficient insulin or uses it improperly. Too much blood sugar remains in your bloodstream when there is insufficient insulin or when cells cease reacting to insulin. That can eventually lead to major health issues like renal disease, eyesight loss, and heart disease.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES
Unintentional weight loss, polyuria (increased urine), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia are the typical signs of uncontrolled diabetes (increased hunger).
In type 1 diabetes, symptoms may appear suddenly (within weeks or months), whereas they do so much more gradually in type 2 diabetes and may even not appear at all.
Although they are not specific to the disease, a number of additional signs and symptoms can indicate the beginning of diabetes.
They also include itching skin, impaired vision, headaches, and weariness in addition to the previously mentioned symptoms.
Prolonged high blood glucose can cause glucose absorption in the lens of the eye, which leads to changes in its shape, resulting in vision changes.
TYPES OF DIABETES
Diabetes can come in three different forms: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes (diabetes while pregnant).
TYPE 1 DIABETES
The autoimmune response is regarded to be the primary cause of type 1 diabetes (the body attacks itself by mistake). This response prevents your body from producing insulin. Type 1 diabetes affects roughly 5–10% of adults with diabetes. Diabetes type 1 symptoms frequently appear suddenly. Children, teenagers, and young adults are typically diagnosed with it. To survive if you have type 1 diabetes, you must take insulin every day. Nobody now understands how to stop type 1 diabetes.
TYPE 2 DIABETES
Your body struggles to properly utilize insulin in type 2 diabetes, making it difficult to maintain normal blood sugar levels.
The majority of diabetics (90–95%) are type 2.
It takes years to develop, and adults are typically diagnosed with it (but more and more in children, teens, and young adults).
If you are at risk, it is crucial to have your blood sugar tested because you might not exhibit any symptoms.
A healthy lifestyle change can either delay or prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes.
Women who have never had diabetes before who become pregnant can acquire gestational diabetes.
If you have gestational diabetes, your unborn child may be more susceptible to health issues.
After your baby is born, gestational diabetes typically disappears.
DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
Testing for blood sugar is a relatively cheap way to make an early diagnosis.
Diabetes is treated with a healthy diet, regular exercise, reducing blood sugar levels, and other known risk factors for blood vessel damage.
It’s crucial to stop smoking if you want to prevent difficulties.
People with type 1 diabetes need insulin, while those with type 2 diabetes may also need to take oral medications, control their blood pressure, and take care of their feet (patient self-care by maintaining foot hygiene; wearing appropriate footwear; seeking professional care for ulcer management; and regular examination of feet by health professionals).
HOW TO COPE WITH DIABETES
Eat healthy – This is crucial when you have diabetes, because what you eat affects your blood sugar. No foods are strictly off-limits. Focus on eating only as much as your body needs. Get plenty of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. Choose nonfat dairy and lean meats. Limit foods that are high in sugar and fat. Remember that carbohydrates turn into sugar, so watch your carb intake. Try to keep it about the same from meal to meal. This is even more important if you take insulin or drugs to control your blood sugars.
Exercise – If you’re not active now, it’s time to start. You don’t have to join a gym and do cross-training. Just walk, ride a bike, or play active video games. Your goal should be 30 minutes of activity that makes you sweat and breathe a little harder most days of the week. An active lifestyle helps you control your diabetes by bringing down your blood sugar. It also lowers your chances of getting heart disease. Plus, it can help you lose extra pounds and ease stress.
Set a weight loss goal based on your current body weight. Talk to your doctor about reasonable short-term goals and expectations, such as a losing 1 to 2 pounds a week.
Manage stress. When you’re stressed, your blood sugar levels go up. And when you’re anxious, you may not manage your diabetes well. You may forget to exercise, eat right, or take your medicines. Find ways to relieve stress — through deep breathing, yoga, or hobbies that relax you.
Stop smoking – Diabetes makes you more likely to have health problems like heart disease, eye disease, stroke, kidney disease, blood vessel disease, nerve damage, and foot problems. If you smoke, your chance of getting these problems is even higher. Smoking also can make it harder to exercise. Talk with your doctor about ways to quit.
Watch your alcohol -It may be easier to control your blood sugar if you don’t get too much beer, wine, and liquor. So if you choose to drink, don’t overdo it. The American Diabetes Association says that women who drink alcohol should have no more than one drink a day and men should have no more than two. Alcohol can make your blood sugar go too high or too low. Check your blood sugar before you drink, and take steps to avoid low blood sugars. If you use insulin or take drugs for your diabetes, eat when you’re drinking. Some drinks — like wine coolers — may be higher in carbs, so take this into account when you count carbs.
Take Medication – Know your pills and insulins, understand how they work and take the right doses at the right times